New Directions Proof of Concept awardees:
Supporting Frontend Programming for People with Visual Impairments
Huaishu Peng, CMNS-Computer Science
The on-going democratization of assistive technologies has led to new employment opportunities for people who are blind and vision impairment (BVI). According to Stack Overflow, 1.5% of developers reported being BVI in 2019, an increase of nearly 111% as compared to 2017. Although many BVI developers are now able to write codes to express logic and algorithms, these codes are limited only to the backend of a computer program. Frontend program, program that requires not only logic but also the understanding of the design and visual layout, cannot be written by BVI developers.
The ultimate goal of the research is to support the development of new tools that enable BVI developers to create visual layout and frontend programs independently. With the New Direction Funds, the PI aim to 1) understand how BVI people currently create and edit visual layouts if asked to, and the social-technical challenges they face during the process, and 2) develop an initial prototype for the accessible visual layout programming tool.
The new research direction proposed here will build upon PI’s extensive knowledge of computer system design and creativity supporting tool research, but in the outlook on the user groups that are often neglected for design and creativity.
Engineering an in vitro system to simultaneously study transport across mucus, mucosal epithelium, and into lymphatics of the gastrointestinal tract
Katharina Maisel, ENGR-Bioengineering
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the most common target for delivering drugs systemically. Poor absorption of many drugs has led to the development of a variety of pro-drugs including ones that mimic lipids. Lipids are packaged into small vesicles known as chylomicrons that travel from the GI epithelium to systemic circulation via lymphatic vessels. This transport pathway allows lipid pro-drugs to avoid degradation by the liver. Much of the field has ‘implied’ the lymphatic transport of drugs by studying the dynamics of systemic drug levels, but no good models exist that allow studying of drug absorption across the GI tract and into lymphatic vessels. In this work, we will develop a physiologically complete in vitro model of a lacteal that combines mucus-producing cells and enterocytes (mucosal epithelium) with lymphatic endothelial cells. Our model will provide new insights into lymphatic transport processes and could also be used to study changes in barrier properties of the mucosal epithelium, mucus, and lymphatic endothelium in disease, thus revealing new therapeutic targets and pathological mechanisms. Developing mucosal in vitro model systems is a new direction for our lab that has largely focused on lymphatic models and mucosal drug delivery thus far.
Bringing Local Community Benefits to Prince Georges County, Maryland Through Demand Response Modeling for Electricity Usage in Buildings
Steven Gabriel, ENGR-Mechanical;
Qingbin Cui, ENGR-Civil & Environmental;
Andrew Fellos, INFO-Community Outreach Program
In electric power markets, there are potentially significant cost savings by shifting electric load from periods of high prices to lower-priced ones. This load-shifting is called demand response (DR) and how to optimally schedule it, how to incentivize customers to participate and stay in DR programs, and how to engage communities in this effort for their benefit is the subject of the proposed work. DR has been demonstrated to save electricity consumers billions of dollars per year. As an example, PJM's independent market monitor reported that consumers in PJM's services territory saved over $11.8 billion in 2013 alone (Analytics, 2010). These savings resulted from demand participation in PJM's wholesale forward capacity market.
The proposed work will concentrate on communities in Prince Georges (PG) County, Maryland. That County, including its municipalities, represent over 900,000 people who are represented by elected officials who have expressed and demonstrated great support for sustainability and resilience. These communities, including College Park, University Park, Greenbelt, New Carrollton, Hyattsville, University Park and Berwyn Heights, Maryland, have agreed to participate in the proposed work and through a series of outreach and research tasks will benefit from DR. The conceptual model is to have these PG counties be part of the already existing DR program that the University of Maryland (UMD participates in. UMD Facilities & Maintenance (F&M) division decides ahead of time to adjust thermostat settings, lighting, air filtration and the like to lower the overall electric load on campus without sacrificing user comfort in associated campus buildings. When UMD commits to and implements a load reduction in the PJM day-ahead market, they get a payment for this load flexibility. When the PG counties in this study participate in DR through the existing UMD program, they too will get payments for allowing their electric load to be reduced. These payments can then be used for collective, community benefit for such things as reducing taxes, lowering homeowner association fees, payments to individual homeowners, etc. This is a new direction for PI Gabriel in that it combines outreach and energy modeling.
A Missing Link in Understanding Disproportionality in Special Education: Assessing Implicit Racial Bias in Academic Decision Making
Kelli Cummings, EDUC-Counseling, Higher Education, and Special Education;
Richard Shin, EDUC-Counseling, Higher Education, and Special Education
Researchers have convincingly demonstrated that teachers treat Black students differently, contributing to racial disparities in achievement and other types of inequalities in schools. Despite convincing evidence, researchers have only recently begun to examine the impact of implicit racial associations in learning contexts. In this project, we aim to evaluate the impact of implicit biases on special education decisions relating to student placement in increasingly restrictive levels of instruction support. Our project is, in part, a conceptual replication of a study completed by Okonofua and Eberhardt (2015) whose landmark findings were the first to provide concrete evidence of the psychological mechanisms underlying racial inequities in discipline for perceived behavioral infractions. In our study, we will utilize an explanatory mixed-method design to explore the relation between implicit racial bias and disproportionality in special education decisions with a sample of 290 third-grade teachers. As a follow-up to the quantitative portion of our study, we will purposefully sample teachers for follow-up qualitative interviews. Our research design will permit us to understand how teachers interpret student data to make placement decisions and the degree to which these decisions may vary based on perceived student race. The focus of this investigation represents new directions in Drs. Cummings’ and Shin’s respective research programs, though both have expertise in the areas of bias and social justice.
The Next Chapter Project: Exploring Parenting + Mental Health Intervention among Trauma-Affected Young Families
Elizabeth Aparicio, SPHL-Behavioral & Community Health
Approximately 3.5 million children a year are officially reported to child protective services authorities as having been abused and neglected in the U.S., yet this public health problem can be greatly reduced through attuned evidence-based prevention services to families most at risk. Effective prevention among our youngest, most vulnerable children, including infants and toddlers with young, trauma-affected parents who have their own history of child maltreatment (i.e., maltreated young parents), is of key importance to public health by bolstering resilience and giving children and families a strong start. This New Directions Fund proof of concept formative pilot study has three aims. Aim 1: Establish community site partnerships in Maryland and Washington D.C.as a context for the current community-engaged proof of concept research study and future community-engaged clinical trials. Aim 2: Develop a theory of the process and experience of accessing and receiving parenting support and mental health support among young mothers with their own history of child maltreatment, grounded in the experience of community members’ experiences (N=30 young maltreated parents, caregivers of young maltreated parents, and social service professionals serving young maltreated parents). Aim 3: Explore community receptivity to participation and develop strategies for engagement and retention in clinical trials. The future trials would test parenting plus mental health interventions as a mechanism for reducing risk of intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect among young families.
Whereas my previous work has been focused on understanding this population more generally, the current New Directions Fund study will position me to begin to select and test specific interventions to prevent the intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect via improving parenting and mental health support to young maltreated parents.
Metasurfaces as a Replacement for Gems: New Strategies to Nonlinear Optics Materials
Oded Rabin, ENGR-Materials Science & Engineering
The incorporation of nonlinear optics materials into miniaturized integrated photonic devices, for use in communication, quantum optics, or sensing, is challenging. Typical materials are polished crystals that cannot be miniaturized or grown by standard microelectronic and nanooptics foundry tools. This project will investigate engineered plasmonic metamaterials that offer a unique, and previously unexplored method to artificially produce a nonlinear response using conventional metals and dielectrics that could be easily incorporated into photonic platforms. The demonstration of a plasmon-enhanced artificial nonlinearity that rivals or exceeds that of bulk materials would be a revolutionary and high-impact result, with fundamental implications and commercial applications. In the long term, the research may find applications in photo-therapies and medical imaging – where the need is for a mechanism that generates locally high-energy photons within a medium that is not transparent to that radiation.
This “New Directions” proposal will enable a new collaborative research effort leveraging on the work of Prof. Rabin in Plasmonics and the work of Prof. Murphy in Nonlinear Optics.
An Investigation of Perinatal Stress in Low-Income African American Women and Their Young Infants
Brenda Jones Harden, EDUC-Human Development and Quantitative Methodology
This project is motivated by evidence suggesting that efforts to reduce racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities would benefit from deeper understanding of the biological impacts of toxic stress observable in infants and postpartum mothers. Thus, the overarching goal of this project is to examine the biological and behavioral consequences of perinatal stress among a sample of low-income African American women and their 3–6 month old infants (n=50).
This pilot study will extend an existing study of low-income African American women through which we have obtained information about the mother’s social environment and experiences during the perinatal period. The specific aims of the current project are to investigate: 1) the relation between prenatal maternal chronic stress exposure and infant physiological stress reactivity via cortisol; 2) the association between prenatal maternal chronic stress exposure and telomere length in mothers and infants; 3) the relation between prenatal and postnatal maternal depression and infant physiological and behavioral stress regulation; and 4) the correlation between telomere length and cortisol reactivity to stress in mothers and infants.
This represents a new direction for my applied empirical work on high-risk families in two ways: the inclusion of physiologic questions and data; and a focus on the perinatal period.
Smart Machine Translation with Social Sensitivity: Facilitating Workplace Inclusion Through Socio-technical Solutions
Marine Carpuat, CMNS-Computer Science Ge Gao, INFO-Information Studies
Inclusion across language boundaries is a crucial challenge in today’s organizations. The United States has 27.4 millions of migrant domestic workers and 42.3 millions of worldwide employees at offshore multinational organizations. Workplace communication often involves multiple languages, which can exclude people who do not speak a language in use, lead to social fragmentation between language groups, and hurt information sharing.
This project brings together a unique combination of expertise in machine translation (MT) and computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) to develop a smart machine translator with social sensitivity and promote inclusion across languages. The smart translator will process conversations in foreign languages and provide translations at different levels of specificity depending on in-situ needs. The New Directions funds support a proof-of-concept Wizard-of-Oz study to validate that speakers value MT specificity in these settings. The project represents a new research direction for both PIs. It pushes the boundary of research in MT by establishing a human-centered evaluation matrix for machine translation. It also informs new directions of research in CSCW by exploring how human speakers and MT can navigate through workplace interactions as a joint system.
Cy Keener, ARHU-Art
Glacial Now, a New Directions Fund Proof of Concept award proposal by Cy Keener, Assistant Professor of the Department of Art, seeks support to build a virtual reality application that will enable users to experience the Aletsch Glacier in Switzerland in past, present, and future scenarios based on a mix of historical data, digital capture, real-time environmental sensing, and video game engine software. The project will use the immersive tools of virtual reality, art, and technology in an effort to expand perception and awareness of climate change at this pivotal moment by connecting VR headset wearers with a real remote mountain environment that is undergoing change at a massive scale. The project represents a new research direction for the PI: it builds on his previous experience using technology to interpret and represent the environment, but incorporates the new medium of virtual reality, enabling Prof. Keener to reach a significant new audience outside of the gallery and museum systems.
Environmental Inequalities in Neurocognitive Development
Richard Prather, EDUC-Human Development and Quantitative Methodology Devon Payne-Sturges, SPHL-Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health (MIAEH)
The goal of this project is to investigate how disparities in day-to-day exposure to air pollution impacts children’s cognitive functioning and performance on educational tasks. Though there is a clear connection between air pollution exposure and children’s developmental outcomes, much of this work focus on long-term exposure measured at stationary locations and broad outcomes, such as IQ and performance on standardized tests. We bring a fine grain analysis of neurocognitive processes that underlie children’s abilities in the classroom and minute-by-minute variation in personal air pollution exposure. Our proposed study addresses the connection between complex effects of daily exposures to combustion related air pollutants, and the dynamic changes in children’s neurocognitive functioning as relevant to performance in educational settings. We will assess children’s exposures over multiple time periods and evaluate the effects on the cognitive processes necessary for math learning. Children’s early numerical skills are useful to focus on as they predict later mathematical performance, general academic performance and even employment outcomes.
This collaboration represents new direction for both principal researchers. Each researcher brings specific expertise that is necessary for this project. Dr. Prather has expertise in the development of children’s early math skills. Dr. Payne-Sturges has expertise in racial and economic disparities in environmental contaminant exposures, health impacts of air pollution and environmental health policy.
Improving measures of marriage in sub-Saharan Africa to address women’s and children’s health outcomes
Kirsten Stoebenau, SPHL-Behavioral & Community Health Sangeetha Madhavan, BSOS-African American Studies Gregory R. Hancock, EDUC-Human Development and Quantitative Methodology
Sub-Saharan African countries continue to have some of the worst outcomes in maternal and child health. Evidence demonstrates that a woman’s union status (e.g., married, cohabiting, divorced) has an impact on these outcomes. Yet, many countries are undergoing rapid social transformation in the marriage process. Measures of union status have not kept up with this change. For this pilot study, we will develop a new measure of union formalization that can be used to focus intervention efforts on women whose union status places their own and their children's health at increased risk. The study will take place in Nairobi, Kenya, and will be conducted by a multi-disciplinary team of investigators from the School of Public Health (PI, Dr. Kirsten Stoebenau), the College of Behavioral and Social Sciences (Co-investigator, Dr. Sangeetha Madhavan) and the College of Education (Dr. Gregory Hancock). This pilot study will demonstrate the feasibility of improved measures of marriage that can be adapted for other contexts in the region. This study represents a new area of research for PI Stoebenau whose work to date has largely focused on the social determinants of HIV risk for women engaged in the sexual economy.
New Directions LEGO awardees
Digital Survey of Monumental Tombs on Jerusalem’s Mount of Olives
Matthew J. Suriano, ARHU Joseph and Rebecca Meyerhoff Center for Jewish Studies Ming Hu, ARCH-Architecture
Our project is an experimental survey of the monumental tombs on Jerusalem’s Mount of Olives that date to the Iron Age (8th and 7th centuries BCE). The monolithic tombs prominently marked Jerusalem’s eastern horizon in antiquity. Yet today these tombs are obscured and inaccessible to archaeologists due to their situation in a residential area of east Jerusalem. The study of the monument’s visible role on the ancient landscape is possible through digital means. This project will engage in a non-intrusive digital survey of the funerary monuments organized through Building Information Model (BIM) software, which will be used to construct and organize virtual models of the tombs. The survey represents a new direction in our research as we will deploy laser scanning (LiDAR), photogrammetry, and Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) to analyze the monumental architecture and associated Hebrew inscriptions.
The objective is to capture sufficient data to virtually reconstruct each tomb’s full architectural form, with inscriptions intact, and restored to their original topographical setting unencumbered by modern developments. The digital models built on the BIM platform will offer architectural historians, archaeologists, and epigraphers the ability to collaborate and analyze the visible qualities of the monumental tombs in ways never before available.
The Search for German Uranium
Timothy Koeth, CMNS-Institute for Research in Electronics & Applied Physics (IREAP) Miriam Hiebert, ENGR-Materials Science & Engineering
At the end of World War II, an intelligence mission, code named ALSOS, was commissioned with the goal of assessing the state of the German nuclear program. When they arrived in Haigerloch Germany they found the remains of Werner Heisneberg’s attempt at building a nuclear reactor in the form of 664 small uranium cubes. The majority of these cubes have since mostly been lost to history, but we are currently aware that at least some ended up in private and university collections. We have also determined that an additional 400 cubes were stored in another location in Germany and after the war made their way through the black market in Europe. Had these cubes instead been used in the reactor experiment in Haigerloch, they would have resulted in a functioning reactor – a feat that until now has been understood to have been far out of the reach of German scientists. This project seeks to fill in the gaps; explore the role of these cubes in the failure of the German nuclear program, and investigate how many cubes still remain, where they are now, and what stories they might reveal along the way.
Arctic Circle Residency
John Ruppert, ARHU-Art
This LEGO Fund request will support PI participation in The Arctic Circle Residency, Summer Solstice Expedition. This two-week expeditionary residency takes place on a specially outfitted sailing vessel, which departs from Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway. This unique and timely residency provides an opportunity for an international group of artists and scientists to explore the high-Arctic Svalbard Archipelago and Arctic Ocean and experience the changing landscape and conditions.
PI participation in this Residency is an extension of his long-standing interest in natural phenomena and humanity’s interaction with the environment. While on the residency the PI will be capturing encounters through a variety of media: video, sound, photography, and drawing. Afterwards, he will produce a new body of work in direct response to his experiences there, building on his existing body of work and be the culmination of his oeuvre to date.
Justice, Friendship, and Happiness: the Argument of Plato's Republic
Rachel Singpurwalla, ARHU-Philosophy
Plato’s masterpiece, the Republic, launches a complex argument for the claim that being a just person is crucial for happiness. While the Republic is a perennial source of inspiration for philosophers, psychologists, and political scientists who are interested in virtue and its role in human flourishing, the exact nature of Plato’s argument remains obscure. My project, Justice, Friendship, and Happiness: the Argument of Plato’s Republic, argues for a new interpretation of Plato’s defense of justice. My distinctive contribution is to bring to the fore two neglected themes in Plato’s influential work: civic friendship and happiness. While both themes are crucial for understanding the argument of the text, neither has been sufficiently highlighted and analyzed, nor has their role in the main argument of the Republic been appreciated. I argue that (i) Plato’s conception of civic friendship – his account of the bonds that exist between the members of a well-run society – contains a rich account of moral motivation and thus greatly informs how we understand his conception of the just person and his or her motivation to act, and (ii) his claim that justice is fine and admirable provides the resources to show that there is an important relationship between justice and happiness. The result of my investigation, then, is a new interpretation of Plato’s Republic, one that advances our understanding of both the text itself and the nature of justice and happiness and the relation between them.
Exploring the Psychology of Environmental Senescence through fMRI
Jeremy Wells, ARHU-Philosophy Erica Molinario, BSOS-Psychology Stephanie Preston, University of Michigan - Psychology, Cognition and Cognitive Neuroscience Area
This pilot study proposes to perform functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of people’s brains to understand how “historic” versus “non-historic” places activate or do not activate certain parts of the brain with the aim of making historic preservation practice more responsive to people’s needs. Historic environments, or places defined by their physical age, are a significant part of the human environment. However, the study of the relationship between humans and historical environments is understudied from a psychological perspective. This study proposes a fundamental contribution to the nascent field of the psychology of historic environments (i.e., senescent environments), providing a preliminary data-driven understanding of the brain responses to an environment with evident signs of advancing physical age (i.e., with decay and/or patina). We believe that by showing the legitimacy of answering questions about how laypeople perceive and are emotionally affected by “historic” or older places, we can make a much stronger case for additional research in the area, especially by linking it to changes needed to make historic preservation practice more human-centered.
Digital Urban History in Colonial Mexico
Juan Burke, ARCH-Architecture Program
The project entitled “Digital Urban History in Colonial Mexico” seeks to produce urban and architectural documentation for the Mexican colonial city of Puebla, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries, utilizing a combination of digital technologies, such as GIS data and architectural modeling software, with traditional historiographical research, particularly archival material such as city ordinances, official city decrees, city council minutes, and census data. The product will be a catalog of urban maps that document the city’s growth, demographics, resources management (water, agricultural plots, etc.), as well as three-dimensional models of architectural landmarks that seeks to visualize and better understand the city’s urban environments and historical character. The proposed documentation would fill a gap, given that the city lacks a significant number of historical maps, and other traditional sources of urban visual material, such as engravings, topographical surveys, or even written descriptions of the city that would help document the city’s urban history, are either scant or non-existent for the colonial period.
The societal relevance of this project lies on the fact that today Latin American cities are plagued by issues such as social segregation, environmental degradation, uncontrolled urban development, and others. Better understanding Latin America’s urban past and its mechanisms will help bridge the past with the present, and hopefully help to find solutions for the future.